Cooking Help 101

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Cooking Help 101

Postby Voice Circe » Sat Jun 14, 2003 1:06 pm

Have some great advice for those who may be having trouble grasping the finer points of your culinary masterpiece? Feel free to post it here.

To start it out, I will give you some standard conversions

U.S. Standard To Metric
1 cup ...... 200 ml and 2-15 ml spoons
3/4 cup ...... 175 ml
2/3 cup ...... 150 ml
1/2 cup ...... 100 ml plus 1-15 ml spoon
1/3 cup ...... 75 ml
1/4 cup ...... 60 ml
1 tbsp ...... 15 ml spoon
1 tsp ...... 5 ml spoon
3/4 tsp ...... 3.75 ml spoon
1/2 tsp ...... 2.5 ml spoon
1/4 tsp ...... 1.25 ml spoon



Quick Conversions


U.S. Standard To Metric
1 cup ...... 200 ml and 2-15 ml spoons
1 1/4 cup ...... 300 ml
1 1/3 cup ...... 300 ml and 1-15 ml spoon
1 1/2 cup ...... 350 ml
1 2/3 cup ...... 375 ml and 1-15 ml spoon
1 3/4 cup ...... 400 ml and 1-15 ml spoon
2 cups ...... 475 ml
2 1/4 cups ...... 500 ml and 2-15 ml spoons
2 1/3 cups ...... 550 ml
2 1/2 cups ...... 600 ml
2 2/3 cups ...... 600 ml and 2-15 ml spoons
2 3/4 cups ...... 650 ml
3 cups ...... 700 ml and 1-15 ml spoon
3 1/4 cups ...... 775 ml
3 1/3 cups ...... 800 ml
3 1/2 cups ...... 800 ml and 2-15 ml spoons
3 2/3 cups ...... 850 ml and 1-15 ml spoon
3 3/4 cups ...... 875 ml
4 cups ...... 950 ml
4 1/4 cups ...... 1000 ml
4 1/3 cups ...... 1000 ml and 2-15 ml spoons
4 1/2 cups ...... 1050 ml and 1-15 ml spoon
4 2/3 cups ...... 1100 ml
4 3/4 cups ...... 1125 ml
5 cups ...... 1175 ml and 1-15 ml spoon



Or, for converting to Australian Equvelants:

U.S. Standard To Australian
1 cup ...... 3/4 cup and 2 tbsp and 1 dsp
3/4 cup ...... 2/3 cup plus 1 dsp
2/3 cup ...... 1/2 cup plus 3 dsp
1/2 cup ...... 1/3 cup plus 2 tbsp
1/3 cup ...... 1/4 cup plus 1 tbsp
1/4 cup ...... 3 tbsp
1 tbsp ...... 1 dsp plus 1 tsp
1 tsp ...... 1 tsp
3/4 tsp ...... 3/4 tsp
1/2 tsp ...... 1/2 tsp
1/4 tsp ...... 1/4 tsp



Quick Conversions


U.S. Standard To Australian
1 cup ...... 3/4 cup and 2 tbsp and 1 dsp
1 1/4 cup ...... 1 cup and 2 tbsp and 1 dsp
1 1/3 cup ...... 1 1/4 cup
1 1/2 cup ...... 1 1/3 cup and 1 tbsp
1 2/3 cup ...... 1 1/2 cup and 1 tbsp
1 3/4 cup ...... 1 2/3 cup
2 cups ...... 1 3/4 cup and 2 tbsp
2 1/4 cups ...... 2 cups and 3 dsp
2 1/3 cups ...... 2 cups and 3 tbsp
2 1/2 cups ...... 2 2/3 cups and 1 dsp
2 2/3 cups ...... 2 1/2 cups and 1 dsp
2 3/4 cups ...... 2 1/2 cups and 3 dsp
3 cups ...... 2 3/4 cups and 1 tbsp
3 1/4 cups ...... 3 cups and 1 tbsp
3 1/3 cups ...... 3 cups and 2 tbsp
3 1/2 cups ...... 3 1/3 cups
3 2/3 cups ...... 3 1/3 cups and 2 tbsp
3 3/4 cups ...... 3 1/2 cups
4 cups ...... 3 3/4 cups and 1 dsp
4 1/4 cups ...... 4 cups and 1 dsp
4 1/3 cups ...... 4 cups and 3 dsp
4 1/2 cups ...... 4 1/4 cups
4 2/3 cups ...... 4 1/3 cups and 1 tbsp
4 3/4 cups ...... 4 1/2 cups
5 cups ...... 4 3/4 cups

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Basics of Roasting Meats

Postby Voice Circe » Sat Jun 14, 2003 1:11 pm

When you are cooking larger, inexpensive cuts of meat, roasting is the best method:

1 The standard temperature for cooking roasts is 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Technically, the lower the heat of the oven, the better the final roasted product will be. At a lower temperature, the meat will take longer to cook but will produce more flavor and moisture. Never roast meat at a temperature below 200 degrees F (93 degrees C). Once a temperature to cook the roast at has been decided upon, and the oven preheated, place the trimmed, tied, seasoned, and seared meat onto a baking dish and into the oven.

2 Roast the meat until its ideal internal temperature is reached. The ideal interior temperature will depend wholly on what type of meat is being roasted. I will hunt these temps up and post later.

3 Once the meat has rested, remove the string from the exterior of the roast. Be cautious when cutting the string free as the meat may still be hot.

4. Slice the meat as thick or as thin as desired.
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Postby Voice Circe » Sat Jun 14, 2003 10:54 pm

These temperatures are found by placing a meat thermometer (only a few dollars at most stores) into the thickest part of the meat.

Meat
Fahrenheit
Celsius

Beef:

Rare
120° - 125°
45° - 50°

Medium-Rare
130° - 135°
55° - 60°

Medium
140° - 145°
60° - 65°

Medium-Well
150° - 155°
65° - 70°

Well Done
160° and above
70° and above

Lamb:

Rare
135°
60°

Medium-rare
140° - 150°
60° - 65°

Medium
160°
70°

Well done
165° and above
75° and above

Poultry:

Chicken (and other small fowl such as game hen and pheasant)
165° - 175°
75° - 80°

Turkey (Goose, Duck, etc.)
165° - 175°
75° - 80°

Pork:

Fresh Pork
160° - 170°
65° - 70°

Ham (Fully-Cooked)
140°
60°

Ham (Uncooked)
160°
70°
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Another Helpful Table of Measurements

Postby Cru » Fri Jun 27, 2003 10:23 am

[center]Table of Measurements[/center]

As a child, my family lived in the basement apartment of my grandparents' house. When I would come home from school, I would sniff the air and head whichever direction had the most enticing aromas. Two kitchens, two bakers, two women who always cooked from scratch. How could anyone not learn to cook in an environment like that?

This was given to me by my mother and grandmother, when I started cooking as a child. My grandmother cooked and baked from many 'old' recipes from the farm which asked for pounds and ounces. They had to feed all the farmhands, as well as a very large family.

Today, these measurements come in handy for those who shop at the many bulk food stores and wonder just how much of an ingredient they will need to buy.


(All level for Dry Ingredients)

3 teaspoons................................= 1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons.............................= 1 fluid ounce
4 tablespoons.............................= 1/4 cup
8 tablespoons.............................= 1/2 cup
16 tablespoons...........................= 1 cup or 8 ounces
2 tablespoons sugar....................= 1 ounce
2 cups granulated sugar...............= 1 pound
2-3/4 cups brown sugar................= 1 pound
2-3/4 cups powdered sugar...........= 1 pound
4 tablespoons flour......................= 1 ounce
4 cups flour.................................= 1 pound
3 cups cornstarch.........................= 1 pound
3 cups cornmeal..........................= 1 pound
4 cups dried currants....................= 1 pound
2 cups seedless raisins.................= 1 pound
2 tablespoons butter....................= 1 ounce
4 tablespoons butter....................= 1/4 cup
2 cups butter or lard or shortening.= 1 pound
10 medium size eggs...................= 1 pound
2 cups milk.................................= 1 pint (16 ounces)
~Phenomenal Woman, that's me~
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"Don't measure the distance; measure my love."
Alt of Ms Evernight 2003/2004
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Postby Voice Circe » Fri Jun 27, 2003 10:52 pm

Allspice 1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon plus 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves


Apple pie spice 1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg & 1/8 teaspoon cardamom


Baking powder 1 teaspoon

1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar


Broth, beef or chicken 1 cup

1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water OR
1 envelope (or 1 teaspoon) powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water

Buttermilk 1 cup
1 cup plain yogurt OR
1 cup milk minus 1 tablespoon plus
1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar


Catsup 1 cup

1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup sugar and 2 tablespoons vinegar (for use in cooking)


Chocolate, semisweet 1 ounce

1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon sugar


Cocoa 1/4 cup

1 ounce chocolate; decrease fat in recipe by reducing the recipe by 1/2 tablespoon oil or butter


Cornstarch 1 tablespoon

2 tablespoons flour


Cream, half-and-half 1 cup

7/8 cup milk plus 3 tablespoons butter


Egg 1 whole

2 egg whites OR
1/4 cup egg substitute

Flour, all purpose 1 cup

1/2 cup whole wheat flour plus 1/2 cup all-purpose flour

Flour, cake 1 cup
1 cup minus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour

Garlic 1 clove

1/8 teaspoon garlic powder OR 1 teaspoon chopped garlic

Gingerroot 1 tablespoon

1/8 teaspoon powdered ginger


Herbs, fresh 1 tablespoon

1 teaspoon dried

Lemon juice 1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon vinegar


Mushrooms, fresh 1 pound

1 10-ounce can, drained


Mustard, dry 1 teaspoon

1 tablespoon prepared mustard


Onion, fresh 1 small

1 tablespoon instant minced


Onion powder 1 tablespoon

1 medium onion, chopped OR
4 tablespoons fresh chopped onion

Orange 1 medium

1/2 cup juice


Pimento 2 tablespoons chopped

3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper, chopped


Pumpkin pie spice 1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ginger, 1/8 teaspoon allspice & 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg


Sour cream 1 cup

3/4 cup buttermilk plus 1/3 cup butter or margarine OR
1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 tablespoon lemon
juice, and 1 cup cottage cheese—blended
until smooth OR
1 cup plain yogurt OR
3/4 cup milk, 3/4 teaspoon lemon juice, and
1/3 cup butter or margarine


Sugar, brown 1 cup firmly packed

2 tablespoons molasses plus Sugar, granulated 1 cup 1 cup powdered sugar

Tomatoes, fresh 2 cups, chopped

16-ounce can, drained


Yogurt, plain 1 cup

1 cup buttermilk OR
1 cup sour cream OR
1 cup cottage cheese + 1 teaspoon lemon juice—blended until smooth
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